Our Collective Feminist Wishlist for 2023

From the overturning of Roe v. Wade and persevering with financial uncertainty, to widespread protests in Iran and elevated variety in politics, 2022 was a yr of great defeat and appreciable victories.

To ring within the new yr, Ms. requested a number of of our favourite feminists—reproductive justice advocates, students, authorized minds, voting rights activists, Ms. staffers and environmental justice consultants—what they’re wishing for in 2023.

Abortion rights activists march to the White Home on on Jul. 9, 2022, to denounce the U.S. Supreme Courtroom choice to finish federal abortion rights protections. (Kent Nishimura / Los Angeles Instances through Getty Pictures)

“As the brand new yr approaches, we want for peace, justice and equality for all. We’re anticipating nice issues from all of the newly-elected feminists in Congress and governor’s workplaces and state legislatures throughout the nation.”

Ms. journal editorial group

Reproductive Justice: ‘A Name Again to Care’

“2022 has been a yr of pleasure and ache, triumph and tragedy for the reproductive well being, rights and justice actions. We’ve got an extended street forward within the struggle for justice for our communities and we’re dedicated to seeing it via.

“As we head into 2023, my want for our motion is a name again to care. As docs, we’re taught that care is our major directive, however our methods are so usually not designed to really help that mandate.

“I want for us to reconnect with our dedication to look after one another and for ourselves. I need us to be daring and courageous, to heart the knowledge of our communities and to hear to one another’s requires help.

“I hope 2023 finds leaning into these commitments to 1 one other. Our lives and our communities depend upon it.”

Dr. Jamila Perritt, president and CEO of Physicians for Reproductive Well being and ob-gyn and abortion supplier in Washington, D.C.

“In 2023, we’d like abortion justice! Restoring Roe v. Wade is not going to guarantee everybody can get the abortion care they want. To make sure equal entry to abortion, we should think bigger and our options should be bolder. Let’s create a world the place abortion care is there for anybody who wants it with out obstacles primarily based on who you might be, the place you’re from or how much you earn. Abortion justice belongs right here—in our communities, metropolis halls, state legislatures, in Congress and the White Home.”

Morgan Hopkins, president of All* Above All and All* Above All Motion Fund, main All* Above All’s work to attain abortion justice and construct the political energy of voters of shade

“The Supreme Courtroom’s choice to overturn Roe v. Wade has prompted a devastating, long-lasting public well being disaster throughout the nation, opening the floodgates for state politicians to ban abortion. As of now, abortion bans have eradicated all or some abortion in 18 states, leaving one in three girls of reproductive age, and extra individuals who can develop into pregnant, with out the facility to manage their very own our bodies.

“In 2023, we need to see extra actions taken to guard equitable entry to abortion on a nationwide scale—just like the FDA’s everlasting elimination of medically pointless obstacles to medicine abortion late final yr.

Restrictions on abortion—together with medicine abortion and medicine abortion through telemedicine—power sufferers to journey a whole lot, and generally 1000’s, of miles or wait weeks to get an abortion, if they’ve the sources to entry providers in any respect. These obstacles usually have a disproportionate impression on communities of shade, who already face systemic obstacles in accessing high quality healthcare.

“In 2023, we hope extra states supportive of abortion rights enact legal guidelines that can defend and broaden entry for all. Every single day, tens of millions of supporters across the nation be part of the struggle towards restrictions that make protected, authorized abortion more durable and more durable to entry. We hope that 2023 brings extra stigma-busting via activism, storytelling and intercourse schooling.

“Deliberate Parenthood believes deeply that every one individuals—regardless of who they’re, the place they dwell or what they earn—ought to have the company to make their very own private selections about their our bodies, their households and their futures, together with insurance coverage protection for the complete vary of healthcare together with contraception and protected, authorized abortion. That’s the world we finally need to see, and the world Deliberate Parenthood works towards day-after-day.”

Danika Severino Wynn, CNM, a complicated follow midwife and vice chairman of abortion entry at Planned Parenthood Federation of America

“Above all else, my 2023 want is that nobody faces the indignity and horror of pregnancy-related criminalization.

“Absent that, I sincerely hope extra individuals perceive that dropping our elementary proper to abortion has impacts far past abortion and that individuals will face elevated criminalization for doing something throughout being pregnant that regulation enforcement believes poses even a possible threat of hurt to the fetus.

“And I hope extra individuals acknowledge that our struggle for reproductive rights, well being and justice is a struggle for abolition; to dismantle the carceral methods which have unjustly policed individuals of shade, poor individuals, individuals with psychological well being sicknesses and individuals who use medication; and that we perceive that reproductive justice is a felony justice and an abolitionist crucial.”

Dana Sussman, appearing govt director of Pregnancy Justice (previously Nationwide Advocates for Pregnant Ladies), a useful resource for individuals going through pregnancy-related criminalization (Contact them; they can assist.)

“I want that every one girls and other people with undesirable pregnancies will be capable to get abortion capsules in order that they’ll do the abortions they want on their very own phrases, with dignity and take management over their lives and future.”

Dr. Rebecca Gomperts, medical physician, founder and director of Ladies on Waves and Help Entry (If you would like abortion capsules for attainable use sooner or later, go to Aid Access. Subsequent yr, Ladies on Waves will analysis the best way to make the abortion capsule out there as a weekly and on-demand contraceptive; help that analysis here.)

“My want for 2023 is the democratization of contraception with fewer price and entry obstacles, together with over-the-counter contraceptive capsules and merchandising machines with emergency contraception (EC) on school campuses and in neighborhood facilities in all places.

“College students throughout the nation are demanding 24/7 merchandising machine entry to EC at price ($7.25 a dose) and the FDA is at the moment contemplating an utility for the primary over-the-counter contraception capsule. I hope they approve it rapidly and CVS, Walgreens and different massive chains make the capsule extensively out there on pharmacy cabinets.

“I additionally want for elevated entry to abortion capsules. The FDA is about to launch tips for pharmacy certification to inventory and distribute the abortion capsule mifepristone for the primary time. I hope the certification course of is simple and pharmacies throughout the nation develop into licensed and inventory abortion capsules. In states the place abortion is authorized, this guarantees to vastly improve entry to abortion capsules.”

Carrie N. Baker, J.D., Ph.D., the Sylvia Dlugasch Bauman professor within the Program for the Study of Women and Gender at Smith Faculty and contributing editor at Ms.

“My want for 2023 is an over-the-counter contraception capsule possibility out there to individuals of all ages. The proof is there that contraception capsules are protected and efficient drugs (a lot that it’s already out there OTC in over 100 international locations), and the appliance for a progestin-only capsule opens up new potentialities for what a world with elevated entry appears to be like like.

“After spending two years preventing to entry contraception myself, I spent my time in highschool serving to fellow younger individuals entry contraception—driving a dozen college students over 40 minutes to appointments each month, navigating the Title X clinic course of which is now beneath assault, and navigating the inequities of underinsurance and lack of insurance coverage in our present well being system.

“Since coming to varsity, these obstacles have modified however stay ever-present—the truth is that inequalities have all the time existed and stay in our healthcare system, affecting our capacity to entry important care like contraception.

“My want is that the FDA and Biden administration will comply with the science (as they’ve promised on a lot else!) and let everybody—no matter age, race, class, gender or sexuality—have a better say of their reproductive journey and entry to contraceptives.”

Beau Nelson, an activist in Advocates for Youth’s #FreeThePill youth council and a pupil at Williams Faculty in Massachusetts. The report sharing findings from the #FreeThePill youth council’s oral contraceptive entry survey with extra tales like Beau’s may be discovered here.

Local weather Justice: ‘Think about a Wholesome and Simply Future’

“In 2023 I’m wishing for continued collective motion and collaboration to convey forth simply local weather options. Because the local weather disaster worsens, it’s clear via our work at WECAN that ladies, feminists and gender-diverse leaders are offering the methods and options essential to fulfill the urgency of this second.

“I hope for fossil gas phaseout, the safety of Indigenous rights and sovereignty, the protection of ladies land defenders and the proliferation of gender fairness all through the local weather motion.

“Allow us to proceed to construct on the work of highly effective leaders to guard forests and biodiversity, construct progressive local weather options, resist oppressive methods and picture a wholesome and simply future for me, for you, for our complete planet.”

Katherine Quaid (Cayuse/Nez Perce/Paiute), communications and outreach coordinator for the Women’s Earth and Climate Action Network (WECAN), a solutions-based group participating girls worldwide for international local weather justice

Justice for Indigenous Peoples

(@RedHornWoman)

“We’ve acquired to acknowledge once we speak about local weather change, those that have paid the heaviest worth are additionally those that have the options and should be within the decision-making. We heed the voices of Black, Brown and Indigenous communities throughout the globe, who’ve born the brunt of colonial and neocolonial violence, previous and current—and who’ve the options.

“Could 2023 convey us nearer to ‘Land Again + Water Again + Star Data Again + Ceremony Again + Language Again + Tradition Again + Matriarchy Again.’

Yi-Chun Tricia Lin, Seventeenth-generation daughter of Taiwan, and chair and professor of women’s and gender studies at Southern Connecticut State University (which sits on the unceded ancestral homelands of Paugussett, Quinnipiac and different Indigenous peoples)

“My want for 2023 is for extra consideration and motion to be targeting lacking and murdered Indigenous peoples. I hope to extend my very own engagement on this space and to proceed to assist help empowerment and therapeutic of all girls and trans/nonbinary/gender nonconforming individuals via elevated entry to helpful, dependable and related data and collective knowledge.”

Karla J. Strand, Ms. contributing editor, librarian, author and historian (Her new enterprise, Origins Historic Analysis, will formally launch in Jan 2023.)

Passage of the Equal Rights Modification: ‘We Will Get There. Collectively.’

“My want in 2023 is to lastly have intercourse equality enshrined within the U.S. Structure via the Equal Rights Modification.

“We noticed how precarious our rights actually are when anti-feminist misogynists on the courtroom and in state legislatures rolled again protections we thought have been settled precedent. Their solely purpose is to manage girls and their our bodies, and this has demonstrated the clear want for equal authorized protections within the Structure. 

“We’ll solely get there by working alongside allies from different actions like unions, civil rights organizations, LGBTQ+ and immigrant rights teams and others whose voices have additionally been marginalized all through the historical past of this nation. 

“However we’ll get there. Collectively. And that’s my want for 2023.”

Zakiya Thomas, president and CEO of the ERA Coalition

“My want for 2023 is for the Equal Rights Modification to be revealed in america Structure. Younger girls and queer individuals’s equality is beneath assault. Whether or not it’s criminalizing abortion, banning gender-affirming healthcare or weakening Title IX protections, the necessity for the ERA is obvious. Younger individuals want, and demand, our Structure explicitly prohibits discrimination on the idea of intercourse. In 2023, 100 years after Alice Paul wrote the ERA, I want the leaders younger individuals elected to struggle for our equality work with us to get the ERA throughout the end line.”

Rosie Couture, founder and govt director of Generation Ratify, a motion of over 12,000 younger individuals organizing for the ratification of the Equal Rights Modification and development of gender justice

Survivor Help: ‘The Burden Ought to Not Be on Them’

“My want for 2023 is for pupil survivors of gender-based violence to have entry to the neighborhood help, sources, and choices that honor their autonomy.

“At present, anti-survivor backlash, rhetoric and insurance policies are making it much more tough for college kids to entry help from their faculties and perceive their Title IX rights to an schooling free from violence.

“I’m so pleased with the scholar organizers and survivors pushing for change day-after-day of their communities. But, the burden shouldn’t be on them.

“My hope is that these in energy—in faculties, within the authorities and as advocates—will put apart inhibiting considerations about status, cash and energy to meaningfully advocate for survivors’ calls for for change and remodel the situations that perpetuate gender-based violence.

“I dream of a world during which survivors in all places are held in neighborhood, supplied with accountability processes that meet their wants and have the sources to heal and pursue their very own desires.”

Emma Grasso Levine, Title IX coverage and program supervisor of Know Your IX, a youth- and survivor-led mission of Advocates for Youth empowering college students to finish gender-based violence in faculties

A rally organized by Hoosiers In opposition to Sexual Assault at Indiana College in October 2021. (Jeremy Hogan / SOPA Pictures / LightRocket through Getty Pictures)

Range in Political Illustration: ‘Ladies’s Underrepresentation Is Each Trigger and Impact of Inequitable Therapy’

“My want for the brand new yr is for continued development of understanding about how girls’s underrepresentation in positions of energy within the public sphere pertains to their overrepresentation in experiencing inequitable outcomes comparable to pay disparities, gender-based violence, larger pupil mortgage debt and discrimination in affected person care.

“Researchers and teachers can play a significant function in elevating consciousness concerning the extent of ladies’s underrepresentation—documenting with knowledge the place developments have been made and progress continues to be wanted, and bringing to gentle the rhetorical and institutional buildings that function gatekeeping boundaries for ladies searching for energy, together with damaging narratives of rape tradition which have each interpersonal and geopolitical implications.

“Understanding girls’s underrepresentation as each trigger and impact of inequitable therapy in regulation and coverage can gas collaborative efforts of teachers, activists and advocates to scale back disparities and enhance life outcomes and justice for all.”

Bonnie Stabile, Ph.D., affiliate dean and affiliate professor on the Schar School of Policy and Government; founder and director of the Gender and Coverage (GAP) Heart; and creator of ‘Ladies, Energy, and Rape Tradition: The Politics and Coverage of Underrepresentation’

Youth Healthcare Reform

“Youth in foster care face many distinctive obstacles to accessing reproductive and sexual healthcare and schooling, a state of affairs solely worsened after the Supreme Courtroom struck down Roe v. Wade.

“My hope for 2023 is that we proceed to dismantle systemic obstacles in healthcare, foster care and different methods to prioritize the bodily autonomy and wholesome sexual growth of younger individuals in foster care. Youth and the adults who help them needs to be outfitted with sources aimed toward empowering younger individuals and supporting their sexual growth.

“The Reproductive Well being Fairness Mission (RHEP) has been working in partnership with younger individuals in care to alter the present panorama of sexual and reproductive well being within the foster care system. As we enter our first post-Roe new yr, it’s as essential as ever that all of us present youth in foster care with what they should make knowledgeable selections about their sexual and reproductive well being with data, dignity and respect — as a result of wholesome growth is on all of us.”

Cindy Cruz, director at Reproductive Health Equity Project for Foster Youth on the Nationwide Heart for Youth Regulation. (Take a look at their podcasts: Self-Taught and Fostering Parenthood.)

Instructional Freedom: ‘Feminist College’

“My want for 2023 is for the belief of a feminist college tradition during which college leaders know the best way to leverage their energy to reply to legislative assaults on the liberty to learn, be taught and educate as a result of these leaders are skilled and dedicated to educational freedom, essential pondering and the values of variety, fairness, and inclusion in deed, relatively than in phrase.

“Regardless of Republican claims of a leftist menace in schooling, DEI counts for simply 0.5 p.c of college budgets, gender and race centered curricula and applications are regularly beneath menace, 75 p.c of school in larger ed are off the tenure monitor and powerless, the ladder to the highest in larger ed is damaged for ladies, particularly girls of shade, and feminist leaders who do succeed are sometimes pressured to decide on between acquiescence and burnout. 

Forty years in the past the Norwegian politician, psychologist, and professor Berit Ås campaigned for a cross-cultural, worldwide Feminist University that might forgo conventional disciplines, myopic specializations, and the competitors for sources maintained by conventional hierarchies and divisions in an effort to develop a ‘cross cultural’ and ‘interdisciplinary method’ that might power open the blind eye of patriarchal analysis and establishments. Such a college tradition would ‘construct upon an ideology of giving suppressed individuals their dignity as soon as once more’ and ‘manage college and administration in a brand new method discovered from experiments within the Quaker communities, on board ships, from girls refugees and smaller faculties, in a method characterised by a number of management and frequent rotation of jobs.

“Think about how a feminist college might reply to what Jonathan Friedman of PEN America referred to as the swagger of these Republican state legislators if we had 40 years of dedication to a non-hierarchical, collaborative, honest, cross-cultural, intersectional and interdisciplinary college tradition.

“Now think about the bigger impression of the schooling such a college would supply.”

Stacy Keltner, Ph.D., professor of gender and girls’s research at Kennesaw State College and previous president of WGS South

Transnational Feminism

“My needs for 2023 are justice, solidarity, and therapeutic for communities that handled abusive companions, governments, colonial powers and political sanctions over the previous few years. Ladies in Afghanistan needed to struggle the Taliban with naked arms. Ukrainian girls left their households and houses and joined communities of refugees. Syrian girls spent their eleventh yr beneath a civil struggle that stripped them of their citizenship rights. Palestinian feminists have gone via incarceration, and Indian Dalit and Muslim girls confronted rape and assault within the title of nationhood.

“Lastly, with the rebellion of #WomanLifeFreedom, Iranian people have confronted a copious quantity of trauma and ache. These unacceptable circumstances didn’t go away any likelihood of post-pandemic restoration to communities of ladies who skilled them.

“As I write these traces, I want for 2023 to be the yr of therapeutic for all brave individuals who pushed via 2022 and didn’t obtain the justice they deserved. I’m hopeful that 2023 is the yr that our feminist desires, with their varied interpretations and flying colours, come via. I want all of us the power and sisterhood to face collectively in solidarity.”

Yalda Hamidi, assistant professor of gender and girls’s research at Minnesota State College Mankato

Revitalized Feminist Motion: ‘Could All Ladies Acknowledge the Urgency of This Second’

“I want for an energized feminist motion that may put into place a ratified ERA and paid household go away for staff right here within the U.S., and reproductive healthcare that features abortion and contraception internationally. I want for ladies’s freedom in Iran and different locations nonetheless battling state violence. I want for rising applied sciences to align with our mission for gender fairness, racial justice and environmental consciousness.”

Janell Hobson, professor of ladies’s, gender and sexuality research on the College at Albany; creator of ‘When God Misplaced Her Tongue: Historic Consciousness and the Black Feminist Creativeness‘; and editor of Tubman 200: The Harriet Tubman Bicentennial Mission

“That every one girls acknowledge the urgency of this political second—not only for the autonomy of our our bodies and decision-making, however for the well being and way forward for this democracy we are attempting to attain and defend.”

Loretta J. Ross, affiliate professor at Smith Faculty and MacArthur “Genius Grant” award recipient

“My want for 2023 is that we channel our collective rage, struggling, aspirations and intentions into concrete motion towards justice. Could we discover neighborhood, hope and inspiration within the work we do collectively to create constructive change.”

Crystal Marie Fleming, creator and editor of 4 books, together with ‘ Be Much less Silly About Race’ and ‘RISE UP! How You Can Join the Fight Against White Supremacy‘; and professor of sociology and Africana research at Stony Brook College in New York

“My want for 2023 is that we who lead, whether or not it’s by driving voters to the polls, serving meals at a soup kitchen, cleansing houses of others, educating, studying, marching and marrying whomever we rattling properly please, proceed to steer the battle to guard our rights and our democracy.

“Meaning our proper to finish a being pregnant and to see a health care provider who treats us with dignity so we now have a wholesome one. It means figuring out that once we go to work, our youngsters are cared for and their caretakers are correctly paid. It means free and unfettered entry to the poll field, the classroom, the courtroom and the curb. Whether or not we protest from a wheelchair or advocate in a boardroom, have a passport or not, communicate English or not, we’re girls who lead—regardless of what number of highly effective few attempt to inform us we don’t.

“At The Management Convention on Civil and Human Rights, we’re 230 organizations robust and many people are girls who lead. All of us seem like the nation and embody the true majority of this nation. And everyone has a voice and worth.

My want is that we all know it, really feel it and act on our collective energy. The Management Convention coalition is preventing collectively to make all of it occur and to maneuver our nation—and our democracy— ahead.”

Maya Wiley, president and CEO of The Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights.

Saving Democracy

“2022 reminded us to take nothing as a right: from reproductive freedom, voting rights, pupil debt forgiveness and entry to inexpensive high quality healthcare, the problems we worth have been on the chopping block.

“However voters in Georgia and throughout the nation didn’t simply sit idly by—we fought back! Within the streets and on the poll field, younger, Black and brown voters confirmed up and confirmed out to avoid wasting democracy but once more. Whereas we fell brief in some races, we nonetheless proved our energy. Black Georgians and younger voters have been central to re-electing the state’s first Black U.S. Senator, Reverend Raphael Warnock. His voice and vote will likely be essential within the yr forward—and so will all of ours.

“As we head into an off-year within the electoral cycle—our work is way from being ‘off.’

“My want for 2023 is that the ladies from all walks of life, younger girls, Black girls and so many others, who helped save democracy in 2020 and 2022 stay engaged and empowered as we maintain our elected officers’ toes to the fireplace and proceed to carry them accountable for standing by their marketing campaign guarantees. Honest Battle will likely be out entrance alongside our allies and fellow change-makers to offer the schooling, group and sources wanted to assist all our communities thrive. We acquired this y’all, as a result of we acquired us.”

Chelsey Corridor, Fair Fight director of media and model partnerships, and political strategist and advisor to Stacey Abrams

“Our democracy is in disaster and in instances like this, we’d like robust, impartial, feminist voices to be heard—and we’d like their presence in media.

“In these instances, I consider the feminists of the twentieth century civil rights motion that fought for equality to really imply all peoples are created equal and for that to be actualized in each state, county, metropolis and city in america—girls like Pauli Murray, Fannie Lou Hamer, Rosa Parks, Yuri Kochiyama, Dolores Huerta, Constance Baker Motley, Diane Nash, Dorothy Peak, Ella Baker, Coretta Scott King, Patsy Mink, Grace Lee Boggs and Daisy Bates amongst many others fought for equality to be greater than mere phrases on paper. We’re a greater nation for all that their legacies in management proceed to offer.”

Michele Goodwin, govt producer of Ms. Studios; creator of ‘Policing The Womb: Invisible Ladies and The Criminalization of Motherhood‘; and chancellor’s professor on the College of California, Irvine

“I want the Biden administration would redistribute funding from constructing army would possibly to committing to the rights of communities to residing wage jobs, healthcare, housing, schooling and extra.”

Carol Stabile, professor on the College of Oregon; former director of the College’s Heart for the Research of Ladies in Society; and creator of a number of books, together with The Broadcast 41: Women and the Anti-Communist Blacklist

Freedom and Equality for All

“As a Black mom, feminist and activist, yearly I strive to consider a phrase that I need to stand/meditate and embody.

“For 2023, the phrase is ‘freedom’—as a result of freedom is a complete sentence. It’s rooted in motion, rooted in love and rooted in each sacrifice and loss of life. For freedom to dwell, oppression has to die, and White supremacy should be in a physique bag proper subsequent to it. For freedom to outlive and develop, we should plant dedication and sacrifice proper beside it.

“Audre Lorde as soon as wrote that it’s your desires that time the best way to freedom, so I’m dreaming of freedom, preventing for freedom, standing on freedom and claiming my freedom.”

Karsonya “Kaye” Smart Whitehead, founding director of The Karson Institute for Race, Peace & Social Justice; a professor of communication and African and African American Research at Loyola College Maryland; and president of the National Women’s Studies Association

“My want for 2023 is easy: I need to see our society to worth individuals for who they’re as people and rejoice the essential contributions they make that carry us all up.”

Christian F. Nunes, nationwide president of the National Organization for Women

Non secular Tolerance

“My want for 2023 is an awakening for individuals who profess non secular religion to the core values of affection and justice that ought to characterize how individuals dwell their lives and follow their politics.

“In too many situations around the globe, and particularly in america, faith is being misused to justify bigotry, discrimination and violence. With the rise of overt white Christian nationalism right here, we’ve seen elevated assaults on reproductive rights and the rights of BIPOC, LGBTQ individuals and immigrants within the title of faith.

“My want is for a non secular politic of affection and justice—one which asks of each motion, ‘Is that this essentially the most loving factor that may be achieved? Does this transfer us towards justice?’—one that may be shared with all individuals of excellent will, each non secular and non-religious, to maneuver us ahead towards a beloved worldwide neighborhood.”

Susan M. Shaw, professor of ladies, gender and sexuality Research at Oregon State College

Up subsequent:

U.S. democracy is at a harmful inflection level—from the demise of abortion rights, to a scarcity of pay fairness and parental go away, to skyrocketing maternal mortality, and assaults on trans well being. Left unchecked, these crises will result in wider gaps in political participation and illustration. For 50 years, Ms. has been forging feminist journalism—reporting, rebelling and truth-telling from the front-lines, championing the Equal Rights Modification, and centering the tales of these most impacted. With all that’s at stake for equality, we’re redoubling our dedication for the following 50 years. In flip, we’d like your assist, Support Ms. today with a donation—any amount that is meaningful to you. For as little as $5 each month, you’ll obtain the print journal together with our e-newsletters, motion alerts, and invites to Ms. Studios occasions and podcasts. We’re grateful on your loyalty and ferocity.